In England, a long-established separate system of courts, beginning with Edward III, dealt with maritime and admiralty issues. According to Sir William Blackstone in Commentaries on the Laws of England, these courts had jurisdiction "to determine all maritime injuries, arising upon the seas, or in parts out of the reach of the common law." During the Revolution, state prize courts often violated international law by condemning prizes belonging to sister states, or nations that were neutral or even allies of the United States. Consequently, after Independence, both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution gave the national government exclusive admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. In Philadelphia, the only debate among the Framers of the Constitution was whether to lodge admiralty questions in a separate court or, as they finally decided, in the federal judiciary. There was unanimity, even among the Anti-Federalists, that this power should be national.